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Win came off good effort from the team

first_imgMarum’s men took a 14-10 lead at the break and ran in three more tries in the second half to win the game in front of close to 15,000 people.“We got off to a good start in the first half despite the two late tries from the Bears.“We did a lot of defending, completed our sets and we were patient enough and the tries came in the second half,” said Marum.“I think our forwards laid the foundation and the Boas brothers controlled the team around the park.”Marum finished by wishing the Bears good luck in their remaining games and that he expects to meet them come the finals.“It was a tough one. The boys really enjoyed it. The Bears are a really good side and we did a lot of work to make sure we played to our game to beat the Bears,” said Marum.The Hunters will travel to Australia to play the Townsville Blackhawks at Jack Manski Oval this Saturday in the round 23 clash. Kick-off is at 4.05pm.last_img read more

Airtel challenge winners relish training chance

first_img0Shares0000NAIROBI, Kenya, October 27- The four young Kenyans selected for a two week Manchester United camp in Dar-es-Salaam have expressed their desire and pine to attend the once in a lifetime opportunity.The four, who were selected during the Kenya Secondary School Sports Association national term 2B games, said the opportunity was an eye opener that would help them hone their football skills. Naim Ashraf from Milimani Secondary School, Mzee Ali Rama of Tononoka High School together with Matuu Memorial School’s Naomi Njeri and Jera Secondary School’s Emily Auma added that the tour would also help them achieve their dreams.Speaking during their unveiling, Njeri expressed her anxiety at attending the camp, which has been sponsored by Airtel Kenya. “I hope to one day participate in the girl’s world cup and also become the best lady footballer in the world. This camp opportunity has made me realize that anything is possible,” said the excited 15 year old.Ashraf, who has been playing football since he was five years old, on his part argued that the camp would set the groundwork for him to play world class football through which he would be able to lift his family’s living conditions. The 15 year old added that he was privileged by the opportunity accorded to him. “I feel like this is the chance I have been waiting for all my life and I think this is the chance that will enable me help my family live a better life. But at first I thought it was a dream,” quipped Ashraf who plays the striker or midfielder position for his school team.Auma on her part said she would continue working hard and not deter on her ambitions of becoming a world class footballer. She also lauded her schoolmates and team mates for their support noting that her success would not have come easy without their help. “They are really excited and as one of their own was selected and they have nicknamed me ‘Messi’. I worked very hard and I had been praying for this opportunity so I sort of expected it,” said the 15 year old, who also plays striker or midfielder. Sixteen year old Rama, who plays position eight for his school team, said he believed the opportunity would help him nurture his talents and help him take care of his family.Rama also said that the training camp provided a great opportunity for him which he had never had since he started playing football when he was around 10 years old. “I hope to use football to assist build my family and the society and also orphans in addition to building a school,” he said.Meanwhile Airtel Kenya Chief Operating Officer Shivan Bhargava challenged other companies to nurture young talent by offering such sponsorships.“This programme is designed to provide a structured platform for scouts, coaches, football authorities and other partners to tap into a vast pool of upcoming talent and we want to continue towards building all-round Kenyan players who will help move the game to the next level,” he said.– By Sarah Ndonga0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today)last_img read more

Drogba’s Elephants march into quarter-finals

first_imgIn the 16th minute Drogba crossed for Chelsea team-mate Salomon Kalou to score from close range, with Bakary Kone heading in an own goal in the closing stages to eliminate his team from the last-eight race.Ivory Coast join Equatorial Guinea, the only other side so far to book their quarter-final ticket after Sunday’s rousing 2-1 win by the co-hosts over Senegal.Ivory Coast manager Francois Zahoui cut a satisfied figure after Thursday’s 2-0 win.“The important thing was to achieve our aim of winning the game. We were facing a determined rival at 200 percent after losing their first game,” he said.“They presented problems but we remained calm, patient. We had to be composed in defence and not to do no matter what.“There are areas to improve, but we’re progressing step by step. I’ve got players who are experienced and know that the most importannt thing is to lift the Cup.Burkina Faso’s coach Paulo Duarte remarked: “We played the perfect match, a great game against a great side. We controlled the tie and were the moral winners but we lost on a defensive mistake and an own goal.“We’ve played two big games but have zero points.”The star-studded Ivory Coast claimed the continental showpiece back in 1992, but have flattered to deceive in recent years when among the favourites, even earning the unflattering tag of ‘chokers’.They lost the 2006 final in Egypt, were beaten by Egypt again in the semi-finals in 2008 and fell to Algeria in the quarter-finals in 2010.Zahoui believes there are positive signs to suggest that the two-decade wait could soon be over.“We’re not letting in any goals and we know that a team with a solid defence goes far in the Nations Cup.”Thursday’s opening Group B clash pitted 2010 hosts Angola up against Sudan, who ended a 36-year Nations Cup goal famine as they came from behind twice to draw 2-2.Former Manchester United striker Manucho scored five minutes into each half for Angola and Mohamed Bashir twice levelled for the Jediane Falcons at a sparsely populated Estadio Nuevo de Malabo.Angola coach Jose Vidigal described the result as “fair”.He added: “We keep our destiny in our own hands and maintain all our chances of qualifying.“It was an interesting game. We led twice but unfortunately Sudan were able to level each time. It’s normal Sudan took more risks as we’d already got our three points.”His opposite number, Mohamed Abdalla, commented: “We started by attacking because to continue in this competition we had to win.“We let in the first goal on a major defensive blunder, the second on a penalty but my players aren’t sufficiently experienced.“I’m happy that twice we were able to equalise. This game gives us huge motivation for our next one.”Both are in a fight off to grab the runners-up spot and with it qualification to the next round behind Ivory Coast.Tunisia and Gabon can join the Ivorians and Equatorial Guinea in the knockout stages if they come away victorious from their respective Group C ties with Niger annd Morocco in Libreville on Friday.0Shares0000(Visited 1 times, 1 visits today) 0Shares0000LIBREVILLE, Gabon January 27 – Ivory Coast’s quest for a second Africa Cup of Nations 20 years after their lone title received a boost on Thursday when Didier Drogba’s Elephants marched into the quarter-finals.Skipper Drogba and company faced Burkina Faso in Franceville having scraped a 1-0 win in their opening game against Sudan last Sunday.last_img read more


first_imgThe Guth Gafa International Documentary Film Festival is seeking submissions from Irish filmmakers of feature documentaries for their 6th annual event in Gortahork which will take place from the 10th to the 14th June. Guth Gafa organisers are currently accepting submissions of feature documentaries in Irish or English completed after 1st January 2009 for this year’s event.The deadline for submissions is 8th April and filmmakers are invited to send DVD screeners of their films to the Festival office before that date.Applicants are advised that festival organisers are particularly interested in films that fit into their regular human rights, social action and environmental themes, and also welcome films that will play well to regional Gaeltacht audiences. There are no premiere requirements for screening at Guth Gafa, but films that have already been broadcast on Irish television will only be considered in exceptional circumstances.Filmmakers whose films have been broadcast are requested to contact the Festival office before submitting.Further details can be found on the Festival’s website www.guthgafa.comThe Guth Gafa International Documentary Film Festival is supported by IFTN, Bord Scannán na hÉireann, RTÉ, The Arts Council, TG4, The Radharc Trust, Screen Producers Ireland, Údarás na Gaeltachta, FÁS/STI, The Broadcast Authority of Ireland, Donegal County Council, Goethe-Institute Dublin, Óstán Loch Altan and other industry partners.   BRILLIANT DONEGAL FILM FESTIVAL IS LAUNCHED was last modified: March 28th, 2011 by gregShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:film festivalgortahorkguth gafalast_img read more

Donegal clothing giant Magee weave profits of €6.7M

first_imgThe accumulated profits at the firm behind one of the country’s best-known clothing brands – Co Donegal’s own Magee – last year climbed to €6.7m.New accounts filed the company show the firm recorded a profit of €289,162 in 2017 – a 98pc increase on the profits of €146,061 recorded in 2016.The firm, which operates principally across the UK and Ireland, today employs 130. Magee clothing chairman Lynn Temple said “Magee continues to grow sales with selected wholesale customers, its own online sales, a new shop in South Anne Street [in Dublin] plus the existing Arnotts concession and the original shop in Donegal since 1866.”On the performance of the business in 2018, Mr Temple said that the company has seen further development of sales.“But consumer confidence in the UK and Ireland continues to be adversely affected by the accelerating changes in high-street retailing and the never-ending uncertainty surrounding the implications of Brexit,” he added.Mr Temple said the company’s 2017 performance had also been affected by the weakening in sterling caused by the Brexit referendum result and the market nervousness that followed. Involved in the business since 1974, Mr Temple states that Magee aims for future growth through selected high-quality retailers throughout Britain and Ireland plus its own online sales and report the cash pile at Magee Clothing Unlimited Co increased from €75,504 to €137,465. The unit of the Magee business employs 34. Pay to directors last year declined from €317,029 to €282,812, made up of remuneration of €263,750 and pension payments of €19,062.Magee was established in 1866 by John Magee as a small drapers shop in Donegal buying and selling handwoven tweeds. In 1900 Robert Temple bought the business and today the fourth and fifth geDonegal clothing giant Magee weave profits of €6.7M was last modified: November 16th, 2018 by StephenShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window) Tags:donegalMagee Clothingprofitslast_img read more

WDW Passholder’s Adventures in Disneyland

first_imgShare This!Let me confess. Though I’m a Walt Disney World Annual Passholder, my first love was Disneyland. Like many of us, my first introduction to Disney Parks was at Disneyland as a young child with my family. Through the course of my childhood and teen years, my family visited Disneyland three times (which was a lot on our limited finances!). Disneyland was also the destination of my first adult vacation, visiting there after I graduated college, in fact, that was my last trip to Disneyland, back in 2004. In 2008, I made my first trip to visit Walt Disney World, and have made it priority to go back as often as my pocketbook will allow!Disneyland, dressed to the nines for the 60th!Like any Disney aficionado, I keep up with blogs, websites, vlogs, and books written about all things Disney. I’ve been keeping abreast of the changes to Disneyland and California Adventure. When the opportunity came up for a work-trip which took me out to California (and only 14 miles from Disneyland!) I had to work in a trip to visit this magical place. Now, I knew my Disney World experience would only have a limited application to visit this west coast sister park. So, I made sure to pick up a copy of the Unofficial Guide to Disneyland to help fill in the gaps where my Disney World knowledge feel short.Like all of my experiences at either Disney Park, there is that initial excitement and bubbly feeling in my stomach, that “I’m actually here!” feeling. That’s universal. But I will say, once I walked under the train station on to Main Street, I immediately felt like I was in “bizarro” Disney (not in a bad way – cool down there DL fans!). It was like I was through the Looking Glass, it was familiar, it was Disney, it was magical, but it was different! Tomorrowland is still on the right of the Castle, and Adventureland is still on left, but the configuration of the lands took some navigating and getting used to.Though the Disneyland Railroad is down while they build StarWarsLand, you can still take a close-up look at the engine and the cars and take some great pictures!Let me impart to any “Worlders” planning to visit the “Land” some of my experience.SizeYou know that Disneyland is smaller than Magic Kingdom. It gives it that intimate and charming feeling. One impact you may not consider is that the smaller size of the park also means that the walkways are narrower. This can make the park feel more crowded and navigating around stroller parking lots and clusters of other families stopped in the walkway inspecting a park map a little trickier. This means in order to avoid a collision, you’ll need to be a bit more attentive to your surroundings because there is literally less wiggle room if you find yourself in a sudden bottleneck. This also makes the use of a Touring Plan, that much more valuable – it can help you stay ahead of the crowds and avoid these bottlenecks when possible.FoodThe Little Red Wagon on Main Street in Disneyland has made hand-dipped corn dogs a cult classic among Disney foodies. I learned from a friend, that you can get the same corn dog with fries instead of chips for less money and a shorter wait if you wonder over to the Stage Door Café over in Frontierland. Additionally, the Stage Door Café has plenty of outdoor seating with umbrella-covered tables, while the Little Red Wagon, though a classic fixture on Main Street, only really offers a few benches and curbs to crash on while you inhale your deep-fried goodness.Corn dogs are a Disneyland classic!Another tip, that’s more for California Adventure than Disneyland, are the cheddar biscuits at Carthay Circle. Let me just say that no menu description gives these delights the descriptive justice they deserve. Imagine little biscuits a little bigger than ping pong ball. The fact that they are fried gives the dough a little crust on the outside, and when you cut (or bite) into it you find a gooey center of creamy white cheddar, smokey bacon, and a slight zing of jalapeno. Add to it the gentle sweetness of the apricot butter served with them and you’ve efficiently pleased every taste bud you have in your possession. If you can’t get Carthay Circle reservations, or if you wallet starts to make whimpering noises at the prices on the menu – just ty to make some time to at least visit the lounge of this epic restaurant, have an iced tea or lemonade and these delicious nuggets from heaven. You won’t regret it.Cheddar Biscuits? Nuggets from heaven!Ok, ok, one last foodie tip. On those hot summer days, sometimes you want something cool and refreshing, but the giant ice cream sundaes or waffle cones just seem too rich. My insider tip, my own little addiction is at a little kiosk in Toontown. They’re called fruit chillers, and they come in Wild Cherry, Blue Raspberry, and Frozen Apple. These are not slurpees, they’re not smoothies, they not even really slushies, but the perfect blend of pureed ice and not-too-sweet fruit flavoring. I tried them all, and the Wild Cherry is my favorite, but I also enjoyed mixing the Wild Cherry and Blue Raspberry. If you happen in Magic Kingdom, you can find this treat at the Cheshire Cat Café in Fantasyland, but they only flavor they offer is the Raspberry Lemonade. Priced at $5, this is great treat to cool you down, but not fill you up.Fruit Slush available in ToonTown. An unheralded treat.MerchandiseIf you’re lucky enough to get to the Disneyland Resort during the Diamond Celebration which ends on September 5, 2016, you’ll get the opportunity to peruse and purchase some amazing swag. These items are sure to be the gems of any collection and the options range from t-shirts to coffee mugs to Christmas ornaments. Otherwise, much of souvenirs and merchandise you find on one coast, you can find at its counterpart.60th Diamond Celebration MerchandiseEntertainmentI think Disneyland wins this category hands-down. In Disneyland, characters walk around freely, there are street performers at every turn, and World of Color and Paint the Night really put this resort over the top. I think Disneyland may offer more entertainment interactions throughout the park because of the frequency of southern California visitors, or it just may feel that way because it’s smaller size. But it really does feel like there’s magic and performances everywhere you look.DCA Newsies are a must-see!AttractionsThere are a lot of duplicate attractions that you’ve find in both Disneyland and Disney World. There are some nuances or nods to variety, but still have the same intent and feel. I give the edge to the Peter Pan’s Flight, Splash Mountain, and Jungle Cruise at Disney World. I think Disneyland does these attractions a bit better: Haunted Mansion, Small World, Mad Tea Party, Big Thunder Mountain, and Buzz Lightyear’s Astro Blasters.The classic façade of it’s a small world at DisneylandYou really can’t compare Disneyland’s HyperSpace Mountain to Magic Kingdom’s Space Mountain, that’d be like trying to compare the Matterhorn to Expedition Everest. For the record, HyperSpace Mountain became my all-time-favorite Disney ride after just one experience. Yep, folks, it’s that’s awesome.One of the most photogenic attractions.I can’t really offer an opinion on Pirates of the Carribean since the Disneyland version wasn’t available during my time there. But my memory of the initial scene, floating through a firefly-lit Louisiana bayou is pretty vivid, so if they kept that, then I think Disneyland wins that battle, too.Final ThoughtsSo, what is the point of this utter rambling of my bizzaro Disney experience? It’s to say that both parks offer such a unique and classic experience that you really should make time to experience both at least once in your lifetime. Am I going to be buying a Disneyland Annual Pass or Premier Passport any time soon? Nope, I still love Disney World. But I do love Disneyland, and don’t plan to wait another ten years before my next visit!What are your thoughts? Have you visited both parks? Do you have a favorite or a preference? Leave your comments below!last_img read more

Marketing Day: AMP for WordPress, Google My Business & Amazon buys Whole Foods

first_imgHere’s our recap of what happened in online marketing today, as reported on Marketing Land and other places across the web.From Marketing Land:Setting up and testing AMP for WordPress: A quick 7-step guideJun 16, 2017 by Stephanie LeVonneLooking to get started with Accelerated Mobile Pages (AMP)? Columnist Stephanie LeVonne has put together this handy guide for WordPress users.Using email to curate one-to-one relationships with customersJun 16, 2017 by Scott HeimesColumnist Scott Heimes believes marketers need to choose the right marketing technology to help them leverage data that will deliver personalized experiences to customers through email.Dear Google: 4 suggestions for fixing your massive problem with fake reviewsJun 16, 2017 by Joy HawkinsColumnist and local search expert Joy Hawkins notes that unless Google My Business gets serious about addressing fake reviews, it will suffer a loss of credibility. Here are her suggestions for tackling this ongoing issue.Amazon buying Whole Foods for nearly $14 billion. What now?Jun 16, 2017 by Greg SterlingThe company has an intriguing range of options now available with 400+ stores.Long-form video content hits milestone, makes up majority of time watched across all devicesJun 16, 2017 by Amy GesenhuesOoyala says Q1 2017 was the first time long-form video content won the most watch-time across TVs, PCs and mobile devices.Lotame and Cint marry survey panel data with DMP dataJun 16, 2017 by Barry LevineThe result is verification of inferred DMP data, enriching user profiles for more focused ad targeting and inventory marketing.Watson mans the first cognitive ad for carsJun 16, 2017 by Barry LevineOn the IBM-owned site, the supercomputer is fielding questions about the Prius Prime like an expert.Online Marketing News From Around The Web:AnalyticsThe Comprehensive Guide to Content Marketing Analytics and Metrics, MarTech AdvisorBusiness IssuesJamie Erlicht and Zack Van Amburg joining Apple, AppleContent Marketing7 Content Marketing Must-Haves for Healthcare Marketers, Top Rank Marketing BlogHeadless, Static or Dynamic Content Delivery? Try ‘All of the Above’, CMS WireHow to Use Events for Evergreen Content Creation, Duct Tape MarketingCopywriting, Design & Usability5 Persuasive Sales Copy Tactics & Why They Work, Search Engine JournalHow to Avoid 6 Common Web Design Mistakes, Search Engine JournalDomainingForget emojis, you can buy Egyptian hieroglyph .com domains, Domain InciteUS “threatens” Costa Rica over Pirate Bay domains, Domain InciteE-Commerce5 Takeaways from E-Commerce’s Biggest Conference, MailChimp BlogAmazon, now a physical retailer too, is granted an anti-showrooming patent, TechCrunchProtecting Your Intellectual Property on Amazon: Brand Registry 2.0, Search Engine JournalEmail Marketing5 Companies That Are Winning with Social Data and Email Marketing, The Blog HeraldGeneral Internet Marketing4 Steps to Resisting Shiny-New Marketing Channel Syndrome and FOMO, MarketingProfsEngagement on New Marketing Channels: A Double-Edged Sword, MarTech AdvisorHow To Do Cause Marketing Right With Influencers, MediaKixMicro-influencers: How to find the right fit for your brand, EconsultancyPerformance Marketing Trends: Driving Conversations in the Digital Age, MarTech AdvisorInternet Marketing IndustryTubular Labs Announces DealMaker, Business WireIntroducing Landing Pages, VerticalResponseMarTech“An ad tech urban legend”: An oral history of how header bidding became digital advertising’s hottest buzzword, DigidayIndustry Insiders Warn Of An Ad Tech Brain Drain, AdExchangerMobile/Local MarketingStudy: Apple update increases app reviews by 15%, Mobile MarketerThere are now five billion mobile subscribers in the world. Where can operators find the next billion?, QuartzReputation ManagementWhy publishers need to protect their reputations in the age of server-to-server, DigidaySocial MediaAsia Pacific News Literacy Group identifies first round of projects to fund under Facebook Journalism Project, Facebook MediaFacebook’s working with publishers on paid subscriptions, DigidayGrowing Your Medical Practice, Part 1: Why Is Facebook Important to Your Practice?, Search InfluenceHard Questions: How We Counter Terrorism, Facebook NewsroomHow Facebook Instant Articles Can Win Back Publishers, AdExchangerInsta-famous: 4 quick tips on how to build your brand’s Instagram profile, MarketingSherpa BlogRevealed: Facebook exposed identities of moderators to suspected terrorists, The GuardianUsing Facebook for B2B Lead Generation, AdAgeWhat Social Marketers Need to Know From the 2017 Mary Meeker’s Internet Trends Report, Simply MeasuredVideo25 Percent of Marketers are Investing in Video Ads on Instagram and Twitter, Small Biz TrendsHot and Cold: Heatmaps in VR, YouTube Creator BlogHow Video Can Compel Action for Advocacy Campaigns, Overit BlogSocial Video Continues to Emerge as a Critical Form of Marketing Content, KoMarketingWhy Live Events Should Be At The Center Of Your Marketing Strategy, Jeff BullasFrom our sponsors: Marketing Day: AMP for WordPress, Google My Business & Amazon buys Whole Foods HomeDigital MarketingMarketing Day: AMP for WordPress, Google My Business & Amazon buys Whole Foods Marketing Day: AMP for WordPress, Google My Business & Amazon buys Whole FoodsYou are here: Posted on 17th June 2017Digital Marketing FacebookshareTwittertweetGoogle+share Related postsLytics now integrates with Google Marketing Platform to enable customer data-informed campaigns14th December 2019The California Consumer Privacy Act goes live in a few short weeks — Are you ready?14th December 2019ML 2019121313th December 2019Global email benchmark report finds email isn’t dead – it’s essential13th December 20192019 benchmark report: brand vs. non-brand traffic in Google Shopping12th December 2019Keep your LinkedIn advertising strategy focused in 202012th December 2019last_img read more

Minimum wage on the rise in Missouri

first_imgYou won’t get rich making $8.60 an hour.  Missouri’s minimum wage is at that rate and will grow 85-cents a year through 2023.The National Federation of Independent Business’ Brad Jones says it will hurt those workers at the bottom end of the pay scale.Opponents claim the new standard will force businesses to raise their prices just to cover the increased costs.last_img

How Many Microbes Are Hiding Among Us?

first_imgMicrobes are everywhere—even inside us. But because so many of these bugs won’t grow in the lab, scientists have had a tough time figuring out just who they are and how they live. That may soon change. By sequencing the DNA in individual cells, researchers have gotten to know 200 new microbes—and they may be able to characterize many more. The more researchers are able to fill out the microbial tree of life, the better able they will be to understand the role that microbes play in the environment and to harness microbial proteins for practical applications.The approach “steps off into a whole world that up to now has been pretty inaccessible,” says Norman Pace, a microbiologist at the University of Colorado, Boulder, who was not involved with the work. “It’s a world we knew was there but we couldn’t get to it.”Almost 400 years ago, the microscope opened a new vista on invisible life. Yet only in the 20th century did researchers become aware of how diverse the microbial world is. At that time, molecular biology made it possible for researchers to compare the same piece of DNA in a variety of organisms. That DNA, which coded for a piece of the ribosome, the cell’s protein-producing factory, revealed vast differences in microbes and led researchers to divide them into two groups, bacteria and archaea, which includes organisms that live in extreme environments such as hot springs. Once researchers began sampling this piece of DNA from many different environments, they were shocked by just how many kinds of microbes existed. It seems that every time researchers test samples from the soil, the ocean, or even the bodies of organisms, they detect dozens if not hundreds of unknown microbes.Yet, learning more about these microbes proved impossible because so few could be grown in the lab, mainly because researchers don’t know what conditions are required for their survival. These hard-to-know organisms became known as “microbial dark matter” because they were as difficult to get a handle on as the dark matter in the universe. Only with great effort have a few microbes been investigated. The microbial family tree highlights the extent of this dark matter. Of the 100 major branches, or phyla, of microbes, less than one-third have any described species, Pace says. The rest of the phyla are uncharted. This is in stark contrast to animals, which consist of about 40 phyla, all of which contain multiple species. It’s been too hard to come up with bacterial species identities to fill out their phyla.Three years ago, Tanja Woyke, a microbiologist at the Joint Genome Institute in Walnut Creek, California, and colleagues decided to head into this uncharted territory by applying a newly developed sequencing approach to bacteria and archaea. Until recently, determining a genome’s makeup required many copies of the DNA, and thus only microbes grown in the lab could be sequenced. But the new technique can decipher DNA from a single cell.Woyke’s collaborators collected water and sediment samples from nine habitats, including ocean hydrothermal vents and the inside of a reactor used to degrade plastic byproducts. They picked these locations to sample because previous genetic surveys had shown many unknown microbes there. The team then isolated and sorted the microbes, singled out 201 cells from 29 largely uncharted phyla, and sequenced those cells’ DNA.With the genomes in hand, the researchers were able to build a better family tree for the microbes and determine which ones were more closely related. The repertoire of genes in each cell indicated what the microbe ate and how it survived in its environment. Many of the microbes used hydrogen as a source of food, and a few relied on sulfur for energy, Woyke’s team reports online today in Nature. The researchers named 18 phyla and were able to group some of them into larger categories called superphyla. Groups called SAR406, EM19, or OP8—initials representing the locations of the collections—took on names like Marinimicrobia, Omnitrophica, or Gracilibacteria.By filling out the family tree, the study makes it easier for researchers to make sense of DNA collected from the environment, because they now have more reference DNA to compare it to, Woyke says. Her team’s tests indicate that such analyses will be improved by up to 20% because researchers will be able to associate more unknown genes with genes already in a database.”The paper is a landmark,” says microbial ecologist Jack Gilbert of the University of Chicago in Illinois who was not involved with the work. He develops computer models that describe how microbial communities respond to different conditions. Having a better idea of the nature of various microbes and how they are related to one another “is very important.”Meanwhile, Woyke hopes that other researchers will use the genome information to figure out how to grow some of these microbes in the lab and study them further. In addition, her group will continue single-cell sequencing of more unknowns. The team has a long way to go: She calculates that she needs to sequence 16,000 genomes to cover half of the microbial family tree in depth. What she’s done to date, she adds “is just a drop in a bucket.”last_img read more